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The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that Alfred "refounded" London in 886.
Archaeological research shows that this involved abandonment of Lundenwic and a revival of life and trade within the old Roman walls.
It is agreed that the name came into these languages from Common Brythonic; recent work tends to reconstruct the lost Celtic form of the name as *[Londonjon] or something similar.
This was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English.
While the City of Westminster developed into a true capital in governmental terms, its distinct neighbour, the City of London, remained England's largest city and principal commercial centre, and it flourished under its own unique administration, the Corporation of London.
In 1100, its population was around 18,000; by 1300 it had grown to nearly 100,000.
During the Tudor period the Reformation produced a gradual shift to Protestantism, and much of London property passed from church to private ownership, which accelerated trade and business in the city.
In 1475, the Hanseatic League set up its main trading base (kontor) of England in London, called the Stalhof or Steelyard.
By the 11th century, London was beyond all comparison the largest town in England.
These include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres.